Cells ooze nanoscale packets known as exosomes that transmit vital messages from one region of the body to the other. Research teams from MIT and other organizations have now worked out a means to capture these messages, which can be utilized to analyze troubles such as fetal abnormalities or cancer. A blend of sound waves and microfluidics is used by the new device to segregate these exosomes from a sample of blood.
The outcomes can assist clinicians and researchers to discover more about exosomes and outline the base for therapeutic or diagnostic devices. It might also enable monitoring & diagnosis of several disorders with an easy blood extract and liquid biopsy, comprising concussions and disorders affecting the kidney, brain, placenta, & liver.
Tony Jun Huang said, “Exosomes have noteworthy prospective in medical treatment & diagnosis, but the existing technologies for the isolation of exosome experience few downsides such as inconsistency, long spin time, low yield, vague exosome integrity, and contamination. However, this work provides a new method that can deal with these problems.”
According to the researchers, the potential of this technique to isolate exosomes without changing their physical or biological properties likely provides new means to evaluate human health & also the inception and development of diseases.
The prototype device developed by Huang and team produces a high-frequency sound wave moving at an angle to fluid proceeding down a small tube. By cautiously adjusting the angle and sound waves’ frequency to the channel’s length and particles’ size, they can drive any particle larger than 1000 nm into a distinct channel.
This takes away the blood elements such as red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells. The fluid then travels via a 2nd chamber wherein the identical force is utilized to filter out all smaller than 130 nm, which is about the dimension of the majority of exosomes and 500x smaller than the human hair’s thickness. The dual-stage method demonstrated the capability to filter out more than 80% of existing exosomes with a purity of 98%, in comparison to the existing approaches that isolate only 5–40% of exosomes.
Ming Dao from MIT explained, “The new technique can remove all blood cells as well as platelets primarily before capably filtering out extracellular vesicles, for instance, exosomes. This latest generation of incorporated device design enables the centrifugation-free sorting of diverse blood elements, which can considerably decrease the cost and time of processing required for liquid biopsy assays.”